When we talk in English we talk either in Direct speech or in Indirect Speech. These are the two modes of narration in English for effective conversation. Therefore, we would study here direct and indirect speech in English with complete rules, examples and online reported speech exercises. So, you may study online, share with your friends and download in pdf direct and indirect speech. Let’s have a defination of both.
Direct Speech is the form of speech where you can describe the exact statement of a person in his own words. It is written under the quotation marks in a sentence. The direct speech sentence has two parts; reporting speech and the reported speech.
Indirect speech is a form of speech where a person describes his experience of some certain event, situation or refers about a person in his own words. It is written without quotation marks. That’s to say indirect speech is the interpretation of an event or situation by a person in his own words. Let’s take a few examples.
Reported speech is an integral part of English study. It is equally important for school students, college studies and for university studies. Direct and Indirect speech has a certain rules of study like reported speech for assertive, imperative, optative and exclamatory sentences. In addition to that reported speech rules with tense changes, pronoun changes and with modal verbs etc, must be studied. Study the following examples.
Therefore you must have understood now that these are two basic ways through which you narrate a situation. The direct form of narration is between two subjects who are present at the point and are talking about something. Whereas,in indirect speech a middle man is involved who describes all things in his own way.
- Direct & Indirect Speech Meaning & Purpose
Parts of Direct Speech Sentence
There are two parts of a direct speech sentence
1. Reporting speech
2. Reported Speech
It is the introductory part of sentence. It usually talks about a person who is talking or describing something. This part of sentence is always out of quotation marks. e.g, ‘he said, she said, Alex said, etc.
This is the part of sentence where the exact words of person are quoted. It encloses the actual words of a someone who is referred at. It uses punctuation marks like speech marks, question marks and sign of exclamation.
What is difference between Direct and Indirect Speech?
Before we move further to know the difference, look at the example below. These examples would let you know the difference between both
Direct Speech: Alex said, ” Martin, I am looking direct and indirect speech examples on internet.
Indirect Speech: Alex Said to Martin that he was looking for direct and indirect speech examples on internet.
While analyzing the above sentence you must have noticed how a direct speech sentence is converted into indirect speech sentence. You must have observed following facts:
- Punctuation marks (comma, quotation, colons) are used in direct speech.
- In indirect speech quotation marks are excluded.
- Pronouns are changed from direct to indirect speech.
- Verb forms are changed in indirect speech
- Other changes in tenses, modals etc where necessary.
How to change into Indirect Speech?
In indirect speech the exact quoted words of speaker are changed. Some other changes, if necessary, like changes in pronouns, verb forms, tense patterns etc are made accordingly. Quotation marks are excluded. The word ‘that’ is used before is used to connect reporting speech with the reported speech.
Direct speech: He said, ” I am writing a letter”
Indirect Speech: He said that he was writing a letter.
Explore the Site for More:
- Indirect Speech Exercises for Interrogative (Question) Sentences.
- Indirect Speech rules Optative Sentences.
- Indirect Speech for Exclamatory Sentence.
- Indirect Speech rules for Imperative Sentences.
- Indirect Speech for all tenses.
- Pronoun change in Direct and Indirect Speech.
- Indirect Speech Examples for Universal truth.
- Indirect speech with “Let Sentences”.
Direct and Indirect Speech Rules
Rule No: 1. No Quotation marks
Quotation marks are omitted in Indirect speech.
Rule No: 2. Use of ‘that’
Use of word “that” to connect the reporting speech with the reported speech. However, there are a certain exception where ‘that’ is excluded.
Rule No: 3. Change of Subjects in indirect speech
In indirect speech pronoun of reporting speech are changed according to the sense of sentence. like I into he/she, me into mine, this into that etc. However, there are a certain exception in this rule.
- Pronouns Changes in Direct and Indirect Speech
Rule No:4. Change in verb form
In indirect speech the form of verb is changed from first form to second and third form, keeping in view other rules
Rule No: 5. Change in Tense Form
Tense are changed as per the sequence of tenses in indirect speech.
Rule No: 6. For Universal truth
Things that are universal truth are eternal statements, are not changed in verb forms and sequence of tenses as following example.
Use of Direct Indirect Speech with rules and examples:
Study the following briefly to undersatand the varying usage of direct indirect speech with all types of Sentences.
(1) Assertive Sentences
Those sentences that show a statement, affirmation or negation, are called assertive sentences
How to change Direct Indirect Speech for Assertive Sentences?
- ‘Said’ in reporting verb is changed into ‘told’ when takes an objective pronoun with it e.g said to me into told me.
- All other basic rules of changing direct and indirect speech.
Study the Examples below
(2). Direct Indirect Speech Change for Imperative Sentences
When a sentence shows, command, order, request, advice etc and end with an exclamation mark, is called imperative sentence.
- The reporting verb ‘said’ is changed as per the nature of sentence. i.e into ordered, commanded, suggested, or advised.
- If the reported speech part has the word ‘please’ in the start, change it into requested or implored.
Study the Examples Below
(3). Direct Indirect Speech For Interrogative Sentences
These are question sentences and end with question marks.
- Use ‘if or whether’ if the reported speech is starting with auxillary verbs.
- No change if reported speech starts with Wh words (what, where,when,why), change the reporting verb ‘said’ into asked, questioned or inquired
Study the Examples Below
- Change of Words denoting Time & Place in Direct and Indirect Speech
(4). Direct and Indirect Speech with Optative Sentences
The sentence in which we express hope, prayer of any wish, are called optative sentences. These sentences use the mark of exclamation at the end of sentence.
What are the rules of reported speech for Optative Sentences?
- Understand the sentence whether it shows prayer, hope or wish.
- Omit the word ‘May’ or ‘Would that’ from the start of reported speech and replace said with ‘prayed’ and ‘wished’, respectively.
- Replace mark of Exclamation with full stop.
Study the Examples Below
(5). Exclamatory Sentences
Those sentences that express sorrow, wonder, joy are called exclamatory sentences. They take an interjection as Alas, hurrah, vow etc with them and take a mark of exclamation.
- Understand the sentence whether it shows joy, grief, or wonder.
- Omit the interjection.
- Replace the repoting verb ‘said’ with suitable word showing wonder, grief or joy (exclaimed with joy/wonder/grief)
Study the Examples Below
More FAQs on Direct and Indirect Speech
Here for your kind reference, we have answered in detail frequently asked questions about direct and indirect speech. You would surely love to have look.
1. What is direct and Indirect Speech. Explain with examples
Direct speech is the form of speech that happens between two or more individuals or subjects at a single time. Here two subjects are involved in a discussion or talk with each other. And, when this talk or discussion is reported to another person who was not present there, it happens in indirect speech. The one who reports the talk to a third person, reports it in his own words or in indirect speech. Take a few examples below.
The teacher said to students, “Tomorrow is your last paper.”
The teacher told students that it was their last paper the next day.
The doctor said, “I will be at the clinic tomorrow.”
The doctor said that he would be at the Clinic the next day.
She said, “I am quite happy here.”
She said that she was quite happy there.
1. What is direct speech and examples?
2. What is indirect speech with examples?
2. What is the difference between direct speech and reported speech?
Direct and Indirect speech sentences can be easily identified by looking at the structure and context of the sentence. A direct speech sentence has two parts. Those two parts are reporting verbs and reported verbs. Further direct speech sentence is under quoted marks. Look at the following examples of direct speech sentence
Maria said, “It will rain today.”
She said, “I don’t care what you say.”
Indirect speech is, on the other hand, is the part of narration where the exact words, situation or scenario, is reproduced to a third person who was absent from there. Quotation marks are removed in addition to further changes as per the rules of indirect speech sentences. It is quite easy. Let’s make an indirect speech of the above direct speech sentence.
Maria said that it would not rain that day.
She said that she didn’t care what I said.
1. How do you identify direct and indirect speech?
3. What are the rules of changing direct speech to indirect speech?
There are certain rules for changing direct speech sentences into indirect speech sentences. The major rules are listed below.
1. Removing quotation marks.
2. Change of verb forms/tense forms
3. Change of pronouns
4. Change of words denoting time and place
5. Other mandatory changes.
While these are important rules that help how to change direct speech into indirect speech. For a detailed study of reported speech rules with examples and exercises, explore the site for more.
1. What are the rules for direct and indirect speech?
2. What are the rules of reported speech?
3. What are the rules of narration?
4. What do you change to indirect speech?
5. What are the rules of reported speech?
6. How do you convert direct speech to indirect speech?
7. How do you convert a sentence into a reported speech?
8. What reported speech rules?
9. What are the rules of reported speech?
4. What is reported speech and what is difference between direct speech and reported speech?
Reported speech is the form of speech wherein the exact situation, event, talk or anything is described by a person in his own words. It is, therefore, an indirect form of speech. For more explanation scroll up, it is already defined at length. Here are a few examples of indirect speech. You may also refer to them as reported speech examples.
Sania said that she was busy that day.
The teacher said that it was an essential lecture that day.
The shopkeeper said that the prices have gone up.
The officer said that he would visit the city the next day.
1. What are reported speech examples?
2. What is reported speech with example?
5. Was changes to what in reported speech?
The verb ‘was’ is used in the past tense to describe an event or situation that has passed. However, in a reported speech the sentence with past tense ‘was’ is changed into ‘had been’. That’s to say as per the reported speech rules with Tense forms, Past continuous verb (was) is changed into Past perfect continuous tense(had been). Let’s have a few examples below
He said, “I was planning to attend all lectures.”
He said that he had been planning to attend all the lectures.
Maria said, “I was quite good at Math once.”
Maria said that she had been quite good at Math once.
6. Will in reported speech?
As per the rules of reported speech with modal verbs, ‘Will’ is changed into ‘Would’ in reported speech. Look at the examples below
She said, “I will call you tomorrow.”
She said that she would call me the next day.
I said, “I will pick you from here tomorrow.”
I said that I would pick him from there the next day.
7. Are change into indirect speech?
‘Are’ as a form of a verb, is used in the present tense to describe a process or ongoing situation, in the present continuous tense. As per the rules of change in Tense form in reported speech ‘Are’ (Present continuous tense) is changed into ‘Was’ (Past Continous tense). For more understanding look at the examples below
She said, “We are in a process of learning a new language.”
She said that they were in the process of learning a new language.
Maria said, ” We are ready to face any challenge.”
Maria said that they were ready to face any challenge.
8. What is the indirect speech of now?
As per reported speech rules, the words denoting time and place are changed. Therefore, ‘Now’ is changed into ‘then’, ‘today’ into ‘that day’, ‘tomorrow’ into ‘the next day’, etc. For a further study explore this site.
9. Did changes to what in reported speech?
As per direct speech rules for change in Tenses, ‘Did’ as the verb of past simple tense is converted into ‘had’ verb of Past Perfect tense. As you have already studied here that past simple tense is changed into past perfect tense. For a further understanding study the examples below
She said, “I did not apply for this job.”
She said that she had not applied for that job.
Maria said, “Aliza did not perform well at the concert.”
Maria said that Aliza had not performed well at the concert.
10. What does shall change to in indirect speech?
Both shall and will are the helping verbs used in the future tense. In reported speech they are changed into should and would, respectively. Look at the examples below for a further understanding.
She said, “I will ensure the presence of all girls here.”
She said that she would ensure the presence of all girls there.
He said, “I shall wait for my father here.”
He said that he should wait for his father there.
11. What is the indirect speech of yesterday?
As per direct speech rules for time and place adverb ‘Yesterday’ is changed into ‘the previous day’ Similarily, today is changed into that day and tomorrow into the next day. Look at the examples below
She said, “I paid my dues yesterday.”
She said that she had paid her dues the previous day.
Maria said, “I went to meet Aliza yesterday.”
Maria said that she had gone to meet Aliza the previous day.
12. Does reported speech have speech marks?
Speech marks or quotation marks are used in Direct speech. In indirect speech or reported speech, there are no quotation marks to quote the exact words or statements. Look at the examples below
I said, “Aliza is working hard for the exam.”
I said that Aliza was working hard for the exam.
The first sentence is called direct speech. It uses quotation marks. Whereas, the second sentence is called indirect speech or reported speech. There are no quotation marks used in reported speech sentences.
13. How many types of direct and indirect speech are there?
There are two types of narration in English. They are called:
(1) Direct Speech
(2) Indirect Speech.
Look at the examples below:
They said, “We will appear for the test.” (Direct speech)
They said that they would appear for the test. (Indirect Speech)
14. What is reporting speech and reported speech?
Reporting verb/speech and reported verb/speech are the two parts of a Direct speech sentence. Look at the sentence below
(1)He said, “(2)I am not prepared to visit the meeting.”
There are two parts of this sentence. Number 1 part is called as reporting ver/speech and the number 2 part is called as reported verb/speech.
The difference between reporting verb and the reported verb is that the reported verb is always quoted. Whereas, the part of the sentence that is out of quotation marks, is called a reporting verb. For further understanding explore our site for more.
1. What is reporting verb and reported verb?
2. What are reporting verbs examples?